We study the theme of vegetarianism and discuss the proportions of nutrition and perfect combinations along with nutritionist Alexandra Korshunova.
Dietitian, cardiologist, member of the European Society of Cardiologists, Lecturer of St. Petersburg State Pedagogical University
For many years, there has been an interest in various non -traditional nutrition systems in the world, which does not fit into the scientific principles of modern medicine. Vegetarianism and a macrobiotic nutrition related to him remain popular. Vitarianism, or raw food diet, is experiencing ups and falls – a system based on the consumption of mainly plant products that are not subjected to heat treatment. Frictorianism is less known – a variety of raw food diet, including only fruits, berries and some vegetables. Today we’ll talk in detail about the appropriateness of vegetarianism.
Vegetarianism involves a complete or partial exclusion from the diet of animal products in favor of plant foods. It is divided into several types. Veganism (strict vegetarianism) excludes meat, poultry, fish, seafood, eggs, milk and dairy products, and in some cases even honey. Lactoovegetarianism (lactative vegetarianism) allows for the use of milk and dairy products. Lacto -ovegetarianism (dairy-yaid-growing vegetarianism) allows dairy products and eggs.
The classic vegetarian has the opportunity to include about 400 types of vegetables and root crops in the diet, legumes, leaves, stems, kidneys, grains, flowers, about 600 types of fruits and more than 200 types of nuts. The source of protein in this power system is nuts, legumes, especially soy, lentils, beans, peas. Also protein sources – spinach, cauliflower, kohlrabi, wheat. Fat sources are vegetable oils – olive, linseed, hemp, mustard, sunflower, coconut, legumen, walnut, corn, almond, poppy, cotton and others.
In percentage ratio
Vegetarians recommend certain proportions in the diet: 5% of vegetable fats (mainly vegetable oil), 10% carbohydrates (all types of cereal and bread products, sugar), 10% proteins (nuts, dairy products), 25% of green vegetables and root crops preparedOn fire, steamed or otherwise, 25% of raw fresh or well -soaked dried fruits, 25% of raw deciduous vegetables and root crops (seasonal) in the form of salads.
For a more complete satisfaction of the body’s need for proteins in the vegetarian diet, a combination of the following products is recommended: rice with legumes or sesame seeds (I often recommend the use of https://fornat.com.tr/tr/home-05/ sesame seeds to prevent calcium deficiency, especially patients who have problems with the assimilation of dairy products);wheat with legumes, peanuts, sesame seeds and soy;legumes with corn or wheat;sesame seeds with legumes, peanuts and soy, as well as soy and wheat;soy with rice and wheat, with wheat and sesame seeds or with peanuts and sesame seeds;peanuts with sunflower seeds.
Yes or no?
FAO and WHO experts recognized the vegetarian diet adequate, but other studies conducted under the auspices of WHO confirm that in the human diet there must be a protein of animal origin in an amount of about 35% of the total protein quota. So what is more in vegetarianism – benefits or harm?
Lactoovegetarianism and lacto -ovegatarianism do not cause fundamental objections and can be recommended for unloading days or even short courses for various diseases. A similar diet is indicated for atherosclerosis, gout, obesity, urolithiasis with the presence of a basketuria, hypertension, blood circulation, pyelonephritis, chronic renal failure, acute hepatitis, and liver cirrhosis. However, recognizing the great importance of plant foods, modern nutrition insists that prolonged veganism over the years can lead to a deficiency of iron, zinc, calcium, vitamins D, B, B2, B12, and, irreplaceable amino acids. In the diet of vegans, the listed set can be sufficient, but its digestibility from plant products is quite low. Therefore, strict vegetarianism cannot be considered rational nutrition at least for children, adolescents, pregnant and lactating women, athletes. The vegan diet cannot satisfy the need of women during the period of postmenopause and the elderly in an easily digestible calcium-for these groups, veganism is also an irrational diet due to a high risk of osteoporosis.