A piano is a stringed keyboard musical instrument with a keyboard. The normal piano has 88 keys. Although the basic principles of the piano are simple, the finesse required to develop a powerful yet sensitive modern piano also makes it the most complex of all mechanical instruments except the organ. The strings of the piano are struck by a felt hammer, which must bounce off the strings momentarily, otherwise it will weaken their vibrations in the very process of their initiation. The hammer must therefore fly freely towards the strings. For the pianist to retain maximum control over the volume, the free-flying distance of the hammer should be as short as possible.
The instrument comes in two basic types: the piano and the piano. The piano is a keyboard stringed instrument with a horizontal (piano) or vertical (piano) string arrangement. The piano has been an extremely popular instrument in Western classical music since the late 18th century. A person who plays the piano is called a pianist
The history of the origin of the piano
The piano was invented in the 18th century by Bartolomeo Cristofori from Padua, Italy. He made his first piano in 1709. It was descended from the harpsichord, which looks like a piano. In a piano, a piece of wood called a hammer strikes the strings.
Early instruments with keyboards, such as clavichords, harpsichords and organs, which were in use at the time, had a much shorter keyboard than today. Gradually, the keyboard became longer, until it had 88 notes (7 octaves plus three notes) of the modern piano.
At first, the instrument was called “pianoforte”. It means “loudly and quietly” in Italian. It was given this name because it could be played loudly or quietly, depending on how hard a note was pressed.
Although the piano was invented at the beginning of the 18th century, it was not until 50 years later that it became popular. The first time the piano was played at a public concert in London, it was in 1768, when Johann Christian Bach played it. The vertical piano was invented in 1800 by John Isaac Hawkings. Seven years later, T. Southwell invented the ‘tug-of-war’. This meant strings for low notes were passed diagonally across the decks so that they could be longer and produce a much larger sound.
Early pianos had strings that were attached to a wooden frame. They were not very heavy, but they were not very strong or loud, so they could not be heard very well in a large concert hall. In 1825 a cast-iron frame was invented in America. This made the piano much stronger so that it could produce more sound, and the strings were unlikely to break.
Famous composers and pianists
Once the piano became popular in the late 18th century, many composers wrote music for the piano. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart started learning the harpsichord when he was very young, but the piano became popular when he was young, and he wrote many sonatas and piano concertos. Franz Joseph Haydn also wrote a lot of piano music. Ludwig van Beethoven was a very famous pianist before he became very famous as a composer. His piano compositions include 5 concertos and 32 sonatas. During the Romantic period many composers wrote for the piano. Among them Franz Schubert, Robert Schumann, Johannes Brahms, Franz Liszt and Friderik Chopin. Later composers included Sergei Rachmaninoff, Claude Debussy, Maurice Ravel, Sergei Prokofiev, Dmitri Shostakovich and Bela Bartók.
Some of the earliest known pianists to play the piano were Dussec, Mozart, Muzio Clementi, John Field and Chopin. In the 19th century Franz Liszt had a great influence on the piano, composing and playing very challenging music. Other great pianists are Clara Schumann and Anton Rubinstein. Pianists of the 20th century include Arthur Schnabel, Vladimir Horowitz, Joseph Hoffmann, Wilhelm Kempf, Dinu Lipatti, Claudio Arrau, Arthur Rubinstein, Sviatoslav Richter and Alfred Brendel. Vladimir Ashkenazy, Daniel Barenboim, Leif Ove Andsnes, Boris Berezovsky and Yevgeny Kissin are among today’s greatest pianists.
Pianists playing popular music include Liberace, Jerry Lee Lewis, Little Richard, Elton John, Billy Joel, Thelonious Monk, Tori Amos and Ray Charles. Perhaps the greatest jazz pianist was Fats Waller.
The piano had been a very popular instrument since the mid-18th century, when it soon replaced the clavichord and harpsichord. By the early 19th century the sound of the piano was big enough to fill large concert halls. Small pianos were made for use in people’s homes.
Pianos are not often used in orchestras (if they are, they are part of the percussion section). They may be used for piano concertos (pieces for solo pianist accompanied by an orchestra). There is a huge amount of music written for piano solo. Pianos can also be used with other instruments, in jazz groups and to accompany singing.